Study Guide Chapter 2 Template

Table of Contents

Study Guide Chapter 2 TemplateObjective 1-2. What are the major components of John Locke’s political philosophy and how did they influence Thomas Jefferson’s writings?3.4.5.Objective 2- Identify the important principles and issues debated at the Constitutional Convention and describe how they were resolved.1.2.3.Objective 3- Explain the Madisonian model of limiting majority control, separating powers, and creating checks and balances.1.2.Objective 4- Understand the conflict between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.1.2.Objective 5- Describe the formal and informal processes by which the Constitution is changed in response to new items on the policy agenda.1.2.3.Objective 6- Evaluate the Constitution in terms of democracy and its impact on policymaking.Key Terms-

Objective 1-

Discuss the importance of the English philosophical heritage, the colonial experience, theBoston Harbor

2. What are the major components of John Locke’s political philosophy and how did they influence Thomas Jefferson’s writings?

a. Natural Rights influenced Thomas Jefferson’s writings because it said that all men have inherent worth and rights, not based upon the government. This lets people go to life, liberty, and property, above even a king. Jefferson almost paraphrased him, using ‘left-evident’, that they had certain ‘unalienable rights’, and that they had the right to the pursuit of happiness.
b. Consent of the governed- the basic hallmark of republicanism and democracy, this implies that the people of a nation have the right to choose who governs them. This is obvious in Jefferson’s creed, since he helped to establish the idea of democracy in the Declaration of Independence.
c. Finally, he preached limited government. Jefferson, as one of the architects of the constitution, helped create the system of checks and balances to allow for a limited government. He held people over the government, and thus used Locke’s ideas strongly.

3.

Draw a schematic drawing of the American government under the Articles of Confederation

4.

Make a list of why the Articles of Confederation failed a. Barely had any central national government at all.
b. Favored many state governments.
c. National army nearly impossible. As a matter of fact, during Shay’s Rebellion, the US had to hire a private force to deal with the uprising.
d. Congress had no power to tax, no power to regulate commerce, or anything else.
e. There was no president, no court, and no central government.

5.

Briefly discuss the general philosophical views of the founding fathers on the following issues-a. Human Nature- Humans are self-interested, basically. Everyone from Franklin to Hamilton believed people want power and money.
b. Political Conflict- The distribution of wealth is the source of political conflict. Those who hold and don’t hold property have always disagreed with each other. The other main sources of conflict were religion, views of governing, and attachment to various leaders. Factions had to be held in check in order for a government to work.
c. Objects of Government- The primary object of government was the “preservation of property”.
d. Nature of Government- They looked for a balanced government with checks and balances, to make sure a faction couldn’t seize the government at once.

Objective 2- Identify the important principles and issues debated at the Constitutional Convention and describe how they were resolved.

1.

What were the three major equality issues at the Constitutional Convention and how were they resolved?
a. Equality and Representation of the States- The big states wanted for representation to be based upon population; the smaller ones believed it’d be better for the representation to be based upon the state itself. The New Jersey school of thought preached two delegates per state, while the Virginia wanted an amount of representatives based on population. They ended up compromising; in a move called the Connecticut Compromise (go us!) there were two created houses of Congress; the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate had two members from each state, while the House of Representatives had delegates based on population.
b. Slavery was the second equality issue. Slavery was legal everywhere but Massachusetts at this point in America’s history. Some people disagreed about slavery; some wanted to keep it, and some didn’t. This would eventually become the Civil War. For now, they compromised by saying that Congress could limit future importation of slaves, but couldn’t forbid slavery itself. As a matter of fact, the Constitution tends towards supporting slavery. The other problem had to do with the House of Representatives; how were slaves counted insofar as population for representation? The end compromise was that each slave would count as 3/5 of a person.
c. Political equality- Some people supported full suffrage for all free adult males. However, many others feared mob rule, or the tyranny of the masses, if this came to pass. The debate ended in a compromise wherein the matter was decided on a state level.

2.

What were the major economic problems addressed at the Constitutional Convention and how were they resolved?a. Tariffs against products from other states- resolved by prohibiting said tariffs and making Congress the primary economic policymaker. It could borrow money and tax.
b. Depreciation of paper money, resulting in creditor bankruptcy- resolved by implementing a national currency, and making individual state monetary systems illegal.
c. Congress had trouble raising money due to a recession- resolved by making the national government pay for the debts incurred under the Continental Congress and the Articles of Confederation. This restored confidence and made money go back into the American economy.

3.

Why did the founding fathers believe it was not necessary to address individual rights specifically in the Constitution? - They had made a limited government that, by design, couldn’t threaten personal freedoms; it also dispersed power among the branches of government and between the national and state governments. They figured this would prevent any one branch from pushing through anything against individual rights.

Objective 3- Explain the Madisonian model of limiting majority control, separating powers, and creating checks and balances.

1.

Draw a schematic diagram of the Madisonian model of government

2.

Define the term “constitutional republic”- a system based upon the consent of the governed to which representatives of the public exercise power, and the public has certain unalienable rights as put down in the Constitution.

Objective 4- Understand the conflict between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.


1.

Complete the following table summarizing the major differences between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists on the issues of civil liberties, power of the states, and the economy.

2.

Why did the Anti-Federalists believe the new Constitution was a class-based document?a. They thought that it ensured particular economic elite controlled the public policies, because of the way it was written and a lack of defense of individual liberties.

Objective 5- Describe the formal and informal processes by which the Constitution is changed in response to new items on the policy agenda.

1.

What is meant by the “unwritten constitution”? - The parts of the constitution based upon judicial interpretation, informally, political practice, and technology.

2.

Describe the different ways in which a formal constitutional amendment might be adopted.a. An amendment can be proposed by a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress or by a national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures.
b. The amendment may be ratified by either the legislature of three fourths of the states or by special state conventions called in three fourths of the states.

3.

The text examines four ways the Constitution changes informally. Complete the following table, listing the ways, defining them, and giving an example for each.
Informal Change
Definition
Example

Judicial Interpretation
The courts have the right to decide whether the actions of the legislative and executive branches are in accord with the Constitution, therefore giving them control over the constitution’s interpretation
Roe Vs. Wade; abortion is constitutional.

Changing political practices
A change based upon common political practices.
The shift of the Electoral college from a real role to a clerical one.

Technology
The technology of the day allows for different implementation of politics, thus changing the Constitution.
The development of atomic weapons has made the president’s position of commander in chief more power.

Increasing Demands on Policymakers
The more things that America can do, the more the Constitution has to be applied to.
Increased demands of domestic policy have made the president more important in preparing the federal budget and a legislative program
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Objective 6- Evaluate the Constitution in terms of democracy and its impact on policymaking.

1. List and explain the five Constitutional Amendments that expanded the right to vote.
a. The Fifteenth Amendment- Prohibited racial discrimination in determining voter eligibility
b. Nineteenth Amendment- Gave women the right to vote 
c. Twenty-third Amendment allowed Washington, DC citizens to vote for president
d. Twenty-fourth Amendment- prohibited poll tax, which discriminated against the poor.
e. Twenty-sixth Amendment- Lowered the voter eligibility age to 18.
2. In what ways does the Constitution expand and diminish the scope of the government?
a. Individualism is reinforced, and checks and balances prevent the government from being all-powerful. This lets almost everyone be heard, and make their own choices. Although not everyone can have their own way, there is little tyranny because of the Constitution
b. The Constitution expands the government’s scope by allowing them to abolish Social Security, or to take over ownership of private companies.

Key Terms-

• Constitution- The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
• Declaration of Independence-The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Natural rights


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